The pelvis is a bone set located at the lower torso that holds different organs including the womb, ovaries, bladder, etc.
Pelvic pain refers to the pain that is felt in the area under the belly button.
Pelvic pain often starts from one of the organs inside the pelvis or near the pelvic bone.
Pelvic pain has many different causes.
It may have been caused by various conditions, both benign and serious, like dysmenorrhoea, bladder infection, appendicitis, endometriosis, and some pregnancy-related conditions.
It is ideal for most people with pelvic pain to visit a medical professional and have them check your condition.
The following are just some of the causes of pelvic pain:
Pain During Sex
Having sex has been discussed to cause pelvic pain, this mostly occurs during painful intercourse due to vaginal dryness/vaginal atrophy which is common in women who have reached menopause.
There are treatments available (like estrogen creams for the vagina) that can help reduce and discontinue pelvic pain experienced during sex.
For individuals who haven’t yet reached menopause and/or have no other medical condition that concerns the pelvic area but still experience pain during sex, it is best to consult a professional sex therapist.
Vulvodynia or vaginal pain is the condition that causes women to experience chronic throbbing and burning pain around the vulvar area.
Women with vulvodynia may also experience itching in the vagina.
This pain syndrome occurs persistently or irregularly and could be aggravated during sexual intercourse or when pressure comes into contact with the vaginal area (e.g. bike riding, etc.).
Up to this day, the exact causes of vulvodynia are still unknown.
Treatment for this condition ranges from home remedies to prescription medication to nerve blocks.
Scar tissue or abdominal adhesions refer to the fibrous tissues that form between body tissues and organs inside the abdomen after an abdominal surgery (C-section, appendectomy, etc.).
These adhesions can cause the body tissues to stick together with the organs of the abdomen.
Most cases require surgery.
Pelvic Congestion Syndrome
Pelvic congestion syndrome is a medical condition that happens when the veins inside the pelvis get swollen and develop into varicose veins.
This condition creates chronic pain in the lower abdomen that usually intensifies when standing and reduced when lying down.
Treatments for this pain syndrome include medication and embolization.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse
This refers to the condition where an organ in the pelvis prolapses from its original position into a lower position and sometimes even pushing against the vaginal walls.
This condition causes pain and discomfort in the pelvic area, especially during sex.
Treatments for this condition include therapy for pelvic muscle strengthening and surgery.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Sexually transmitted diseases don’t always directly cause pelvic pain but could develop it significantly.
A person who develops pelvic pain while having an STD might result in more serious complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease.
There are many kinds of STDs but the most common ones are gonorrhea and chlamydia.
Recent studies show that some particles of bacteria that causes gonorrhea developed drug resistance which made gonorrhea extremely difficult to treat with just antibiotics.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) or painful bladder syndrome is a pain syndrome that causes pain and pressure in the bladder which can result in pelvic pain.
With this condition, you will often experience urgent urination in small volumes.
You might also experience pain while urinating and during sexual intercourse.
The pain varies according to the severity of the condition, it may be a slight discomfort or severe aching.
There are medications available to reduce symptoms of IC.
IC is mostly found in women between ages 30 to 40.
Kidney stones are made up of salts and minerals that form inside the kidneys or ureters.
Most kidney stones are tiny but some stones build up into a very large stone about the size of a golf ball.
These stones can cause pelvic pain as they pass through the ureters.
A person with kidney stones may observe blood in his/her urine due to irritation of the kidney tissues.
Treatment depends on the situation and size of the stones.
Some can be resolved by taking medication and drinking lots of water while other cases require surgery.
Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infection or UTI is an infection that involves several organs such as the kidneys, bladder, ureters, and the urethra.
UTIs may cause painful urination and pelvic pressure.
UTIs that affected the kidneys may be more painful and people who have it may also experience nausea and fever.
This condition can be treated with just antibiotics if discovered early, delayed treatment of UTIs can lead to kidney damage.
Endometriosis is a condition wherein the endometrial tissue (the tissue that makes up the lining of the uterus) grows outside the uterus instead of inside.
This growth may chain to other pelvic organs like the ovaries, intestines, or bladder.
The endometrial tissue still functions as it normally should and breaks down and bleeds every month during menstruation.
However, the tissue remnants cannot exit the body and are trapped in the pelvis which can result in pelvic and abdominal pain.
This condition may reduce a woman’s chances to conceive.
Treatments for this condition range from medication to surgery.
If you are suffering from pelvic pain, get in touch with a doctor immediately.