The pelvis refers to the bone that can be found at the lower torso. It holds other organs of the body such as the ovaries, bladder, and the womb.

Pelvic pain is the pain felt below the abdomen, and usually begins near the pelvic bone or from one of the organs inside the pelvis.

There are many possible causes of this pain. If you are experiencing pelvic pain, it is recommended that don‘t wait to seek medical attention. The earlier the cause is detected, the faster the treatment will be.


Uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids are tumors that develop in the walls of the uterus. These tumors are mostly benign (non-cancerous). In some cases, women with uterine fibroids experience slight to severe discomfort in the pelvis and pain during sex.

Uterine fibroids can also reduce a woman’s ability to become pregnant. These tumors commonly appear in women between the ages of 30 and 40.

Treatment for this condition includes medication and surgery.

Ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are sacs filled with fluid that develops when a gland fails to produce an egg or when a gland closes after releasing an egg.

Ovarian cysts commonly don’t cause symptoms but they, in some cases, do. Some of those symptoms include:

  • sharp pain and/or pressure in the pelvic area
  • pain after sex
  • irregular menstruation

Ovarian cysts, especially when large, may lead to painful urination and pelvic pain. Some of these cysts resolve without any treatments, some need medication, and some require surgery.

In certain cases of ovarian cysts, it is harder or even impossible for the woman to get pregnant.

Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Pelvic inflammatory disease is an inflammatory disease that is caused by bacteria. PIDs are infectious and may have developed from gonorrhea.

This disease can damage different reproductive organs such as the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Common symptoms include pelvic pain that can also be felt in the abdomen, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pain during urination and sex.

PID must be treated immediately to prevent infertility, pregnancy complications, and pelvic pain. The treatments can range from antibiotics to surgery.

Ectopic pregnancy

Ectopic pregnancy or tubal pregnancy is a pregnancy complication wherein the embryo grows outside the uterus.

This complication can cause sharp pains in the pelvis, vaginal bleeding, dizziness, and nausea. If the ectopic pregnancy is timely discovered, it could be treated medically.

However, if it is left untreated to the point where the rupture of the fallopian tubes, surgery needs to be done immediately.

Menstrual cramps

Menstrual cramps or dysmenorrhea strike during menstruation. There are two kinds: the primary and the secondary.

Primary menstrual cramps refer to the pelvic pain that resulted from the contraction of the uterus as an attempt to remove the blood that accumulated inside.

This lasts up to 7 days during menstruation. Usually, these cramps can be felt in the lower back and/or lower belly.

Home remedies and lifestyle changes such as heating pads or regular exercise can aid in reducing the pain.

Secondary menstrual cramps are caused by other pre-existing conditions and not menstruation (like PID, ovarian cysts, etc.)


Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)

Unlike menstrual cramps, PMS occur a week or two before menstruation. It usually causes pelvic and lowers back pain, tender breasts, headaches, etc. that last until menstruation occurs.

Some medicines or changes in lifestyle (dieting and exercising) can help reduce these symptoms.

Painful Ovulation (Mittelschmerz)

Painful ovulation or “mittelschmerz” (a German word which means “middle pain”) transpire during ovulation. This pain occurs when the ovary stretches itself in order to release an egg.

It can last up to hours depending on the situation. This condition doesn’t necessarily need medical treatment as the pain resolves itself over time.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Irritable bowel syndrome is a pain syndrome that affects the large intestines. Symptoms include cramping in the pelvic area, bloating, diarrhea, or constipation.

IBS is a recurring disorder that requires management. Treatment of IBS involves lifestyle changes such as managing stress and diet.

IBS that show more serious symptoms might require medication or counseling.


Appendicitis refers to the inflammation of your appendix.

This can usually be felt on the lower right side of the abdomen and is accompanied by fever and vomiting.

An infected appendix requires immediate medical attention to prevent the appendix from bursting.

If the appendix bursts, it will result in infectious substances getting into the abdominal cavity that can lead to a more serious, possibly life-threatening, condition.

Here is a detailed article on various appendicitis treatments.

If you are suffering from pelvic pain, do not hesitate to get in touch with your trusted doctor immediately.

If this article has been useful to you, please read the previous one posted about pelvic pain reasons. Both complete each other and are full of resources for your better understanding.

An overview of pregnancy-related pelvic pain

An overview of pancreatitis

Everything you need to know about liver cancer


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